Wavell, Archibald Percival, 1st Earl Wavell.

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Wavell, Archibald Percival, 1st Earl Wavell, born in Colchester on 05-05-1883, the son of Archibald Graham Wavell (who later became a Major General in the British Army and military commander of Johannesburg after its capture during the Second Boer War and Lillie Wavell (born Percival),  went to school at Winchester and from here he progressed to the army’s military college at Sandhurst . At Sandhurst, Wavell was a highly successful student and came out top of his class. Wavell gained his commission in 1901. Wavell quickly developed a reputation and in the Boer War he was awarded five medals. He was similarly successful as a junior officer on the Western Front in India. When the first war broke out, Wavell went to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force . He fought at the Battle of Ypres but received a bad wound which led to him losing his left eye. Despite this loss, Wavell remained in the British Army and served in Palestine with the 20th Corps.
Wavell (right) meets Lieutenant General Edward Quinan, commander of British and Indian Army forces in Iraq in April 1941. Sir Quinan died on 13-11-1960, age 75.
In 1939, Wavell was given the task of creating the Middle East Command which had the primary tasks of protecting the Suez Canal and the oil reserves in the region. Wavell’s first enemy in the area was Italy led by Benito Mussolini. When Mussolini sent over 1 million men to North Africa in 1940, Wavell only had 36,000 men at his command. The Italians made major advances from Libya towards the Suez but stopped at the British defences at Mersa Matruh.  In December 1940, Wavell ordered a major British counter-attack which was very successful – pushing the Italians back nearly 500 miles. In January 1941, Tobruk was captured from the Italians.
However, this success forced Adolf Hitler into sending the Afrika Korps  to North Africa commanded by Erwin Rommel. By March 1941, Rommel was in a position to attack the British and he succeeded in pushing them out of Libya, though the British continued to hold out at Tobruk. Wavell attempted a counter-attack in June 1941, but it was halted by the Germans at Halfaya Pass. By now, Winston Churchill had lost confidence with Wavell and he was replaced by General Claude Auchinleck.Wavell was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of British troops in India. On December 7th, Japan bombed the American base at Pearl Harbour  and the Far East was engulfed in war. Wavell’s main task was to organise the British forces in the region so that British territory was protected against a Japanese attack. Wavell believed that he was being starved of the necessary reinforcements which he believed he needed and he resigned in February 1942.
In January 1943, Wavell, here with Lieutenant General Brehon Somervell
  was promoted to Field Marshall and he returned to India to supervise the liberation of Burma. However, throughout the spring of that year, his men failed to drive the Japanese out of the region. Despite this setback, in July 1943, Wavell was made the 1st Earl of Cyrenaica. It was in this role that he tried to resolve the Muslim- Hindu differences in India. In 1947, Wavell was replaced by Lord Louis Mountbatten in India and he became Lord Lieutenant of the County of London.
Wavell married Eugenie Marie Quirk,   only daughter of Col. J. O. Quirk CB DSO, on 22-04-1915. She survived him and died, as Dowager Countess Wavell, on 11-10-1987, aged 100 years

Death and burial ground of Wavell, Archibald Percival, 1st Earl Wavell.

Archibald Wavell died after a relapse following abdominal surgery on 24-05-1950, age 67 in Westminster, Londen. and is buried at Winchester College Chapel, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England, Plot: in the Garth. After his death, his body lay in state at the Tower of London where he had been Constable. A military funeral was held on 07-06-1950 with the funeral procession travelling along the Thames from the Tower to Westminster Pier and then to Westminster Abbey for the funeral service. This was the first military funeral by river since that of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson in 1806. The funeral was attended by the then Prime Minister Clement Attlee as well as Lord Halifax and fellow officers including Field Marshals Alan Francis Brooke   and Montgomery. Winston Churchill did not attend the service.
Field Marshal Lord Wavell’s banner as Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, now displayed in Winchester Cathedral.

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