//hide the elements on login user

The Holocaust in the Netherlands.

12-04-2020

Three quarters of the Dutch Jews were murdered during the Second World War. In other Western European countries such as Belgium and France, these percentages were much lower. Read here what caused the differences.

The German invasion of the Netherlands, Belgium and France started on 10 May 1940. Following the defeat and the start of the occupation, the policy of the Germans was similar in these three countries in many respects: their aim was to cooperate with the national governments, maintain law and order, gradually achieve an adaptation to Nazi policies and to integrate the economies for the benefit of Germany in the most flexible possible way. So the Jews felled rather save and only carried a jodestar

The first anti-Jewish laws and measures were admittedly issued in all three countries at approximately the same time, in October and November 1940, but this resulted in public protests only in the Netherlands. Professors, students and churches, amongst others, protested against the dismissal of Jewish civil servants, including lecturers at universities.

In February 1941, the situation soon got out of hand in the Netherlands. The reason for this was the anti-Jewish riots in Amsterdam which were triggered by Dutch National Socialists with the secret support of local German authorities. Following an incident with the German police in an ice-cream parlour owned by Jews, the SS chief of police Rauter had approximately 400 Jewish men taken prisoner in a reprisal and transported to a concentration camp.

Extremely violent razzias were carried out, witnessed by many non-Jewish inhabitants in Amsterdam, and this resulted in a general strike in protest in Amsterdam and the surrounding area, later known as the February strike. This surprised the Germans, and it was only on the second day that they managed to violently suppress the strike which had spread like wildfire.

After that, every month new regulations and measures were issued against the Jews. They were increasingly driven into social isolation, and stripped of their possessions. However, after the February strike the occupying forces tried to avoid overt violence..

The first anti-Jewish laws and measures were admittedly issued in all three countries at approximately the same time, in October and November 1940, but this resulted in public protests only in the Netherlands. Professors, students and churches, amongst others, protested against the dismissal of Jewish civil servants, including lecturers at universities.

In February 1941, the situation soon got out of hand in the Netherlands. The reason for this was the anti-Jewish riots in Amsterdam which were triggered by Dutch National Socialists with the secret support of local German authorities. Following an incident with the German police in an ice-cream parlour owned by Jews, the SS chief of police Rauter had approximately 400 Jewish men taken prisoner in a reprisal and transported to a concentration camp.

Extremely violent razzias were carried out, witnessed by many non-Jewish inhabitants in Amsterdam, and this resulted in a general strike in protest in Amsterdam and the surrounding area, later known as the February strike. This surprised the Germans, and it was only on the second day that they managed to violently suppress the strike which had spread like wildfire.

After that, every month new regulations and measures were issued against the Jews. They were increasingly driven into social isolation, and stripped of their possessions. However, after the February strike the occupying forces tried to avoid overt violence.

Monument at Westerbork: Each stone represents one person who had stayed at Westerbork and died in a Nazi camp 

In 1939, there were some 140,000 Dutch Jews living in the Netherlands, among them some 24,000 to 25,000 German-Jewish refugees who had fled Germany in the 1930s (other sources claim that some 34,000 Jewish refugees entered the Netherlands between 1933 and 1940, mostly from Germany and Austria). The Nazi occupation force put the number of (racially) Dutch Jews in 1941 at some 154,000. In the Nazi census, some 121,000 persons declared they were members of the (Ashkenazi) Dutch-Israelite community; 4,300 persons declared they were members of the (Sephardic) Portuguese-Israelite community.

Some 19,000 persons reported having two Jewish grandparents (although it is generally believed a proportion of this number had in fact three Jewish grandparents, but declined to state that number for fear that they would be seen as Jews instead of half-Jews by the Nazi authorities). Some 6,000 persons reported having one Jewish grandparent. Some 2,500 persons who were counted in the census as Jewish were members of a Christian church, mostly Dutch Reformed, Calvinist Reformed or Roman Catholic.

 

In 1941, most Dutch Jews were living in Amsterdam. The census in 1941 gives an indication of the geographical spread of Dutch Jews at the beginning of World War II (province; number of Jews – this number is not based on the racial standards of the Nazis, but by what the persons declared themselves to be in the population census):

In 1945, only about 35,000 of them were still alive. The exact number of “full Jews” who survived the Holocaust is estimated to be 34,379 (of whom 8,500 were part of a mixed marriage and thus spared deportation and possible death in the Nazi concentration camps); the number of “half Jews” who were present in the Netherlands at the end of the Second World War in 1945 is estimated to be 14,545, the number of “quarter Jews” 5,990. Some 75% of the Dutch-Jewish population perished, an unusually high percentage compared with other occupied countries in western Europe.

One of the best known Holocaust victims in the Netherlands is the German girl Anne Frank.  Along with her sister, Margot Frank, she died from typhus in March 1945, shortly before the end of the war. in the concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen, due to unsanitary living conditions and confinement by the Nazis. Anne Frank’s mother, Edith Frank-Holländer, was starved to death by the Nazis in Auschwitz. Anne Frank’s father, Otto Heinrich “Pim” Frank, survived the war. Otto remarried and died 19-10-1980, age 91, of lung cancer in Birsfelden, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland.

Blog //hide the elements on login user

end

Top