The Lvivprogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Liviv, Ukraine), which took place from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941 in occupied Poland, during World War II. The German historian Peter Longerich and the Holocaust Encyclopedia estimate that the first one cost at least 4,000 lives. It was followed by the additional 2,500 to 3,000 arrests and executions in subsequent Einsatzgruppe killings, and culminated in the so-called “Petlura Days” massacre of more than 2,000 Jews all killed in one-month span. Prior to the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and the ensuing Holocaust in Europe, the city of Lwów had the third-largest Jewish population in Poland during the interwar period, which swelled further to over 200,000 Jews as the refugees fled east from the Nazis. The Lwów Ghetto was established in November 1941 on the orders of SS Gruppenführer Fritz “Friedrich” Katzmann, the Higher SS and Police Leader (SSPF) of Lemberg and one of the most prolific mass murderers in the SS . Katzmann completed his job when Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945 and vanished into thin air. He lived in Darmstadt as Bruno Albrecht. His wife and five children never heard from him. Katzmann revealed his identity to a hospital priest just before his death on September 19, 1957 At its peak, the Ghetto held some 120,000 Jews, most of whom were deported to the Belzec extermination camp or killed locally during the next two years. Following the 1941 pogroms and Einsatzgruppe killings, , harsh conditions in the Ghetto, and deportations to the Nazi concentration camps,
including Belzec and the Janowska concentration camp located on the outskirts of the city, resulted in the almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population locally. When the Soviet forces reached and took over Lviv on 21 July 1944, only 823 Jews found their way back to the Jewish Provisional Committee in Lviv by Dr. David Sobol.