SS Gruppenführer Heinz Reinefarth was never convicted of any war crimes.

11-01-2019

Heinz Reinefarth was born  26 December 1903 in Gnesen, German Empire. After finishing the gymnasium in 1922, he joined the law faculty of the University of Jena. He graduated in 1927 and passed the 1st degree state exams. Until 1930 he completed his application at the local court in Jena and was promoted to judge. On 1 August 1932, he joined the NSDAP  and received a relatively low number of party id card (1,268,933). In December of the same year he joined the SS.

Shortly before the outbreak of World War II Reinefarth  was conscripted as a reserve Feldwebel. For his actions during the invasion of Poland he received the 2nd Class Iron Cross. He took part in the 1940 campaign against France, for which he was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross. On 20 April 1942, he was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer,   the equivalent of Generalmajor in the Wehrmacht.

After promotion to Brigadier, Heinz Reinefarth was appointed as General Inspector of SS in the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia. In September 1943, he was transferred to Berlin where he served in the Ministry of Order Police (Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei). On 29 January 1944, Reinefarth

  was assigned to be SS and Police Leader in Reichsgau Wartheland (Polish Poznań Voivodeship annexed by Germany in 1939). In this post he was responsible for organizing repressions against Poles and other nationalities. During the Warsaw Uprising he complained that his soldiers lacked ammunition to execute all prisoners.

Polish civilians murdered in the Wola massacre. Warsaw, August 1944

In two days, the units of Reinefarth and SS-Oberführer Oskar Dirlewanger  executed approximately 60,000 civilian inhabitants of Warsaw in what is known as the Wola Massacre.  In one of his reports to the commander of the German 9th Army Generaal der Pantsertroepen Nikolaus von Vormann  Reinefarth stated that “we have more prisoners than ammunition to kill them”. After securing the Wola area, his troops took part in heavy fighting against the Armia Krajowa in the Old Town. In September, his forces were transferred to attack the boroughs of Powiśle and Czerniaków, where they committed further atrocities, including killing of POWs  and wounded found in military hospitals. In all 150,000–200,000 Polish civilians were killed during the uprising. For his actions during the Warsaw Uprising Reinefarth was awarded for his “achievements” with the Oak Leaves to his Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross on 30 September 1944. SS-Oberführer Oskar Dirlewanger died  around 5–7 June 1945, age 49, in a prison camp at Altshausen, probably as a result of ill-treatment. General Nikolaus von Vormann survived the war and died 26 October 1959 (aged 63) in Berchtesgaden.

After World War II, the Polish authorities demanded his extradition. However, the British and American authorities of occupied Germany decided that Reinefarth could be useful as a witness at the Nuremberg Trial. After the trials, he was arrested for war crimes, but the local court in Hamburg released him shortly afterwards on the grounds of lack of evidence. West Germany ruled that depositions were not sufficient to secure his conviction, and also, that genocide was not in the criminal code of Nazi Germany and therefore, would not be applied retroactively.

Reinefarth went on to live a normal life similar to other war criminals and Holocaust perpetrators living in West Germany including SS-Obersturmführer Arnold Strippel  from Majdanek concentration camp, and Oberscharführer Johan Fiedler  from Chełmno extermination camp. In December 1951, he was elected mayor of the town of Westerland, the main town on the island of Sylt. In 1962, he was elected to the parliament (Landtag) of Schleswig-Holstein. After his term ended in 1967, he worked as a lawyer. Despite numerous demands by Poland, he was not extradited. Since the German courts had ruled that there was no evidence of him committing any crimes, he was considered not guilty in the eyes of the law and the federal government.  He received a general’s pension upon retirement. He died on 7 May 1979, age 75, in his mansion on Sylt. SS-Obersturmführer Arnold Strippel was convicted of war crimes at the Third Majdanek Trial before the West German Court in Düsseldorf (1975–1981) for his actions at Buchenwald and at the Majdanek concentration camp, Poland, where he served as deputy commandant (Case no. 145 & 616 in Frankfurt District Court). He was implicated in the torture and killing of many dozens of prisoners including 42 Soviet POWs in July 1942. Strippel received a nominal three-and-a-half year sentence. He also received 121,500 Deutsche Mark reimbursement for the loss of earnings and his social security contributions, which he used to purchase a condominium in Frankfurt, which he occupied until his death, age 82 on 01-May 1994 in Frankfurt and Oberscharführer Johan Fiedler died age 77 on 23 September. 1999

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