Heidegger, Martin, born in rural Messkirch, Germany, raised a Roman Catholic, was the son of the sexton of the village church, Friedrich Heidegger and his wife Johanna, born Kempf. In their faith, his parents adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, which was observed mainly by the poorer class of Meßkirch. The religious controversy between the wealthy Altkatholiken and the working class led to the temporary use of a converted barn for the Roman Catholics.
At the festive reunion of the congregation in 1895, the Old Catholic sexton handed the key to six-year-old Martin. Heidegger’s family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuit seminary, though he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement, and what he described as a psychosomatic heart condition. Heidegger later left Catholicism, describing it as incompatible with his philosophy. After studying theology at the University of Freiburg from 1909 to 1911, he switched to philosophy, in part again because of his heart condition. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologist in 1914 influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianism and in 1916 finished his venia legendi with a thesis on Duns Scotus influenced by Heinrich Rickert.
Rickert died age 73, on 25-07-1936. In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried privat dozent, then served as a soldier during the final year of World War I, working behind a desk and never leaving Germany. After the war, he served as a salaried senior assistant to Edmund Husserl at the University of Freiburg from 1919 until 1923. In 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg. In 1927, Heidegger published his main work Sein und Zeit (Being and Time). When Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg’s election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of later offers, including one from Humboldt University of Berlin. Heidegger was elected rector of the University on April 21, 1933, and joined the National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party on May 1. In his inaugural address as rector on May 27, and in political speeches and articles from the same year, he expressed his support for the Nazi cause and its leader, Adolf Hitler
(did you know
). He resigned the recto rate in April 1934, but remained a member of the Nazi party until 1945. In 1917 he marries Elfride Petri
who will remain his supporting wife until his death. Martin Heidegger had extramarital affairs with Hannah Arendt,
she died age, 69, on 04-12-1975 and Elisabeth Blochmann
, she died of cancer, age 79, on 27-01-1972, both students of his. Arendt was Jewish, (see Anne Frank
) (see Simon Wiesenthal
) (see Setella Steinbach
and Blochmann had one Jewish parent, making them subject to severe persecution by the Nazi authorities (seee Adolf Eichmann
). He helped Blochmann emigrate from Germany prior to World War II and resumed contact with both of them after the war. Heidegger spent much time at his vacation home at Todtnauberg, on the edge of the Black Forest. He considered the seclusion provided by the forest to be the best environment in which to engage in philosophical thought. He was was an influential German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the “question of Being.” His best-known book, Being and Time, is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century and he has been influential beyond philosophy, in literature, psychology, and artificial intelligence.
Death and burial ground of Heidegger, Martin.
Heidegger remains controversial due to his involvement with Nazism and statements in support of Adolf Hitler. Heidegger died on 26-05-1976, old age 86 and was buried in the Messkirch, Baden, cemetery.