Graziani, Rodolfo, born 12-08-1882 in Vilettino near Roma.In 1903, decided to pursue a military career. Graziani was stationed in Italian Eritrea and served in the Italo-Turkish War, where he was promoted to Captain. He saw action in World WarI and became the youngest Colonnelle, Colonel, in the Regio Esercito. In the 1920s, Graziani commanded the Italian forces in Libya. He was responsible for suppressing the Senussi rebellion. During this so-called “pacification”, he was responsible for the construction of several concentration camps and labor camps, where thousands of Libyan prisoners died. Some prisoners were killed by hanging, like Omar Kukhtar , or by shooting, but most prisoners died of starvation or disease. His deeds earned him the nickname “the Butcher of Fezzan” among the Arabs, but he was called by the Italians the Pacifier of Libya. In 1930, he became Vice-Governor of Cyrenaica and held this position until 1934, when it was determined that he was needed elsewhere. In 1935, Graziani was made the Governor of Italian Somalililand. The Senussi or Sanussi are a Muslim political-religious Sufi order and tribe in Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammadf ibn Ali as Senussi. Senussi was concerned with both the decline of Islamic thought and spirituality and the weakening of Muslim political integrity. From 1902 to 1913 the Senussi fought French expansion in the Sahara, and the Italian colonisation of Libya beginning in 1911. In World War I, the Senussi fought against the British in Egypt and Sudan. During World War II the Senussi tribe provided vital support to the British 8th Army in North Africa against the German and Italian forces. The Grand Senussi’s grandson became King Idris of Libya in 1951. In 1969, King Idris I was overthrown by a military coup led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi . A third of the population in Libya continue to be affiliated with the Senussi movement. He became Governor General of Libya, Governor of Italian Somalia and Deputy Governor of Cyrenaica in the Second World War, he was defeated by the British Army in 1941 and was replaced by Benito Mussolini. In 1944, Graziani accepted the post of Minister of War in the newly formed “Republic of Salò” (Italian Social Republic), post he held until the final defeat in 1945. On April 29-04-1945, General Graziani surrendered to the Allies, and after a period of detention as war prisoner in Algeria, he was tried and sentenced to nineteen years in prison but remained in prison just three years. The judges ruled that he had not had responsibilities in the decisions of the Government of Italian Social Republic. He was inducted in the United Nation list of war criminals for the use of poison gas and bombing of the Red Cross’s hospitals, but was never prosecuted for that. After the war he entered in politics life of post war but after some years he retired to private life. He died of natural causes at his home, age 72 on 11-01-1955 in Roma in Affile not far away from Rome. He is buried on the Affile Cemetery of Provence of Roma.