Anne Frank, born 12-06-1929 and Margot Frank, born 16-02-1926, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, were two daughters of Otto Frank.
He has an older brother Robert (1886), a younger brother Herbert (1891) and a sister Helene (1893). His father Michael heads the family bank, which specializes in currency trading.
Anne and Margot are born in Frankfurt am Main in the Marbachweg 307
The Franks are liberal Jews and threatened by the Nazi laws Otto moved with his family to the free country Holland . The family of Otto lived most of there life in or near Amsterdam, in the Netherlands (see About
) Merwedeplein 37, second floor.
By nationality, they were officially considered Germans until 1941, when they lost there nationality owing to the anti-Semitic policies of Nazi Germany, the Nuremberg Laws.
The Frank family moved from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933, the year the Nazis gained control over Germany. By the beginning of 1940, they were trapped in Amsterdam by the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in the Achterhuis, the hidden rooms of Anne’s father, Otto Frank’s, office building, situated at the Prinzengracht 236 in Amsterdam. There was a secret door, behind a bookcase, to the refugees apartment. Achterhuis, a Dutch word denoting the rear part of a house, translated as the “Secret Annexe” in English editions of the diary.
Friends of the Frank family joined them, the couple van Pels, Auguste, born Röttgen and Hermann, with their son Peter and a four months later another German fugitive joined them, Fritz Pfeffer.
After two years, the group was betrayed by probably by Willem van Maaren
the Jewish lady Lena Hartog-Van Bladeren a cleaning women in the same hidding building. To report a single Jew to the SD brought in a 75 Dutch guilders, about 30 dollars in that time. The complete group was captured by Karl Josef Silberbauer,
an Austrian SD man in company of a four or five Dutch SD men in civilian clothes, three of them were Maarten Kuiper, who died in 1971, Gezinus Gringhuis, Willem Grootendorst. Silberbauer forched inside, wanted money or jewels and snatched a bag, shaked the contents out, took what he wanted and left Anna’s dairy on the ground, which was found by Miep Gies later. Silberbauer later worked for the secret service of Major General Reinard Gehlen
. Silberbauer died age 61, in 1972 and he is quoted as saying of Anne Frank’s diary: “I bought the little book last week to see if I am in it. But I am not. Maybe I should have picked it up off the floor.” Anna Frank is one of the most renowned and most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust (see Simon Wiesenthal
) and the Sinti girl from my hometown Eindhoven, in the Westerbork train (see Settela Steinbach
(see Untersturmführer Hans Stark
). Acknowledged for the quality of her writing, her diary has become one of the world’s most widely read books, and has been the basis for several plays and films. Anne Frank, her mother and her sister, Margot, were eventually transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, from Westerbork, the Dutch concentration camp SS Obersturmführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker
was the camp commander, where they all died, weeks before the end of the war.
Fritzi Markovits was earlier married with Erich Geiringer, who was born 11-11-1901, in 1923 and they had two children, Heinz born 1926 and Eva born 1929.
The family like the Frank family flew from Germany to Holland in 1940 and lived in Amsterdam where the Frank’s were their neighbors. In 1944 they were also captured by the SD and deported to Auschwitz. Her husband Erich and son Heinz didn’t survived the camp, as they perished in the forced march to Mauthausen that came just before the war ended. Fritzi together with her daughter Eva returned to Holland on 13-06-1945. Otto Frank visited them at their apartment not long after. They married and went to Basel, Switzerland and a few years after the death of Otto she moved to London where her daughter Eva was living
. Eva, was married with Zvi Schloss in 1952. Fritzi Frank-Markovits died on 02-10-1998, age 93, in London. In 2013 her daughter Eva Schloss’ memoir of life after the Holocaust After Auschwitz
died 11-01-2010, age 100 and Otto’s efforts led to its publication in 1947. Miep Gies was the last of the group of Dutch women who helped hide and sustain the family of Otto Frank, her former employer, when the Germans occupied Amsterdam in 1942. She describes Otto Frank as “The calm one, the children’s teacher, the most logical, the one who balanced everything out. He was the leader, the one in charge. When a decision had to be made, all eyes turned to Mr. Frank.” When the Frank family was taken away, Miep Gies also found a diary on the floor kept by Otto’s daughter Anne. She hid it for years, thus preserving the story of the young girl whose name would become known the world. It was translated from its original Dutch and first published in English in 1952 as The Diary of a Young Girl. It has since been translated into many languages. The diary, which was given to Anne on her 13th
birthday, chronicles her life from 12-06-1942 until 01-08-1944. In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp and killed approximately 17.000 prisoners.
Death and burial ground of Frank, Annelies Maria “Anne” and Margot.
Witnesses later testified Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and a few days later, Anne died. They state this occurred a few weeks before the camp was liberated by British troops, on 15-04-1945. Anne died age 15, Margo age 19 and the bodies were burned, the ashes are with many other victims gathered in big mass graves on the ground of the Bergen Belsen concentration camp. Otto Frank married a former neighbor from Amsterdam and fellow Auschwitz survivor, Elfriede Geiringer (1905–1998), in Amsterdam on 10-11-1953, and both moved to Basel, Switzerland, where he had family, including children with whom he shared his experiences. SS Hauptsturmführer, Josef Rudolf “Angel of Death” Mengele
infamous for performing human experiments on camp inmates in Auschwitz, including children, for which Mengele was called the “Angel of Death” on the cemetery Birsfelden in Basel.
Massgrave location Bergen Belsen with Frank, Annelies Maria “Anne” and Margot.
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