Annelies Maria "Anne" and Margot
- Frank, Annelies Maria "Anne" and Margot
Anna Frank and her sister Margo from the Achterhuis in Amsterdam.
- 12-06-1929 and 16-02-1926, Frankfurt a/d Main
- 1945, murdered, age 15 and 19, Bergen Belsen concentration camp..
Mass grave on the concentration camp Bergen belsen.
Frank, Annelies Maria "Anne" and Margot
Achterhuis, a Dutch word denoting the rear part of a house, translated as the "Secret Annexe" in English editions of the diary. Anne Frank, born 12-06-1929 and Margot Frank, born 16-02-1926, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, were two daughters of Otto Frank.
He has an older brother Robert (1886), a younger brother Herbert (1891) and a sister Helene (1893). His father Michael heads the family bank, which specializes in currency trading. The Franks are liberal Jews. The family of Otto lived most of there life in or near Amsterdam, in the Netherlands (see About). By nationality, they were officially considered Germans until 1941, when they lost there nationality owing to the anti-Semitic policies of Nazi Germany, the Nuremberg Laws. The Frank family moved from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933, the year the Nazis gained control over Germany. By the beginning of 1940, they were trapped in Amsterdam by the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in the hidden rooms of Anne's father, Otto Frank's, office building, situated at the Prinzengracht 236 in Amsterdam. Friends of the Frank family joined them, the couple van Pels, Auguste, born Röttgen and Hermann, with their son Peter and a four months later another German fugitive joined them, Fritz Pfeffer.
After two years, the group was betrayed by propably by Willem van Maaren or the Jewish lady Lena Hartog-Van Bladeren , a cleaning women in the same hidding building. To report a single Jew to the SD brought in a 75 Dutch guilders, about 30 dollars in that time. The complete group was captured by Karl Josef Silberbauer, an Austrian SD man in company of a four or five Dutch SD men in civilian clothes, three of them were Maarten Kuiper, who died in 1971 , Gezinus Gringhuis, Willem Grootendorst. Silberbauer forched inside, wanted money or jewels and snatched a bag, shaked the contents out, took what he wanted and left Anna's dairy on the ground, which was found by Miep Gies later. Silberbauer later worked for the secret service of Major General Reinhard Gehlen (see Gehlen). Silberbauer died age 61, in 1972 and he is quoted as saying of Anne Frank's diary: "I bought the little book last week to see if I am in it. But I am not. Maybe I should have picked it up off the floor." Anna Frank is one of the most renowned and most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust (see Wiesenthal) (see Stark). Acknowledged for the quality of her writing, her diary has become one of the world's most widely read books, and has been the basis for several plays and films. Anne Frank, her mother and her sister, Margot, were eventually transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, from Westerbork, the Dutch concentration camp SS Obersturmführer, (see Gemmeker), where they all died, weeks before the end of the war.
Otto Frank, the only survivor of the family, returned to Amsterdam after the war to find that Anne's diary had been saved by Miep Gies. Otto Frank and Fritzi Markovits are married on 10-11- 1953. Miep died 11-01-2010, age 100 and Otto's efforts led to its publication in 1947. Miep Gies was the last of the group of Dutch women who helped hide and sustain the family of Otto Frank, her former employer, when the Germans occupied Amsterdam in 1942. She describes Otto Frank as "The calm one, the children’s teacher, the most logical, the one who balanced everything out. He was the leader, the one in charge. When a decision had to be made, all eyes turned to Mr. Frank.” When the Frank family was taken away, Miep Gies also found a diary kept by Otto’s daughter Anne. She hid it for years, thus preserving the story of the young girl whose name would become known the world. It was translated from its original Dutch and first published in English in 1952 as The Diary of a Young Girl. It has since been translated into many languages. The diary, which was given to Anne on her 13th birthday, chronicles her life from 12-06-1942 until 01-08-1944. In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp and killed approximately 17.000 prisoners. Witnesses later testified Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and a few days later, Anne died. They state this occurred a few weeks before the camp was liberated by British troops, on 15-04-1945. Anne died age 15, Margo age 19 and the bodies were burned, the ashes are with many other victims gathered in big mass graves on the ground of the Bergen Belsen concentration camp. Otto Frank married a former neighbor from Amsterdam and fellow Auschwitz survivor, Elfriede Geiringer (1905–1998), in Amsterdam on 10-11-1953, and both moved to Basel, Switzerland, where he had family, including children with whom he shared his experiences. SS Hauptsturmführer, Josef Mengele (see Mengele) infamous for performing human experiments on camp inmates in Auschwitz, including children, for which Mengele was called the "Angel of Death". Otto Frank died of lung cancer old age of 91, on 19-08-1980, in Swiss and is buried on the cemetery Birsfelden in Basel.