Adolf Otto Eichmann, born 19-03-1906, to a Lutheran family in Solingen. His parents were businessman and industrialist Adolf Karl Eichmann and Maria, born Schefferling After his mother died in 1914, after the birth of the last child, Adolf then 4 years old, his family with four brothers now, moved to Linz, Austria and came under the care of two aunts. During the First World War, Eichmann's father served in the Austro-Hungarian Army. At the war's conclusion, Eichmann's father moved the family back to Linz where he operated a business. Eichmann left high school, Realschule, without having graduated, a boy on his own, without real friends and nickname "the littele Jew" began training to become a mechanic, which he also discontinued. In 1923, he started working in the mining company of his father. From 1925 to 1927 he worked as a sales clerk for the Oberösterreichische Elektrobau AG and then until spring 1933 Eichmann worked as district agent for the Vacuum Oil Company AG, a subsidiary of Standard Oil. During this time he was a member of the Jungfrontkämpfervereinigung, the youth section of Hermann Hiltl's right-wing veterans movement. Hiltl died age 48, on 15-08-1930. In July 1933 he moved back to Germany. Eichmann married Veronika Liebl (1909–1997) on 21-03-1935.
The couple had four sons: Klaus Eichmann (born 1936 in Berlin), Horst Adolf Eichmann (born 1940 in Vienna), Dieter Helmut Eichmann (born 1942 in Prague) called after Eichmann's adjutant Dieter Wisliczeny, and Ricardo Francisco Eichmann (born 1955 in Buenos Aires). On the advice of family friend Ernst Kaltenbrunner (see Kaltenbrunner
), Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the NSDAP, member number 889,895, and the Schutzstaffel (SS). He enlisted on 01-04-1932, as an SS-Anwärter. He was accepted as a full SS member that November, appointed an SS-Mann, and assigned the SS number 45326. For the next year, Eichmann was a member of the Allgemeine SS, General SS and served in a mustering formation operating from Salzburg. In 1933 when the Nazis came to power, Eichmann returned to Germany and submitted an application to join the active duty SS regiments. He was accepted, and in November 1933, was promoted to Scharführer and assigned to the administrative staff of Dachau concentration camp. At the start of World War II, Eichmann had been promoted to SS-Hauptsturmführer and had made a name for himself with his Office for Jewish Emigration, like another desk murderer administrator Odilo Globocnik (see Globocnik
). Through this work Eichmann made several contacts in the Zionist movement, which he worked with to speed up Jewish emigration from the Third Reich.
Eichmann returned to Berlin in 1939 after the formation of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt. December 1939, he was assigned to head RSHA Sub-Department IV-A4, IV means Gestapo, A interior matters, 4 is religion and b Jews
and evacuation, where he reported to Heinrich Müller. In August 1940, he released his Reich Main Security Office: Madagascar Project, a plan for forced Jewish deportation that never materialized. He was promoted to the rank of SS-Sturmbannführer in late 1940, and less than a year later to Obersturmbannführer. His adjutants were Richard Krumey, died age 56 in 1962, Adolf Bekerle and Dieter von Wisliczeny.
Dieter von Wisliczeny shortly for his execution on 14-11-1946, in the prison in Bratislava, betrayed that Eichmann was still alive. Reinhard Heydrich (see Heydrich
) disclosed to Eichmann in autumn 1941 that all the Jews in German-controlled Europe were to be murdered. In 1942, Heydrich ordered Eichmann to attend the Wannsee Conference
as recording secretary, where Germany's anti-Semitic measures were set down into an official policy of genocide. Eichmann was given the position of Transportation Administrator of the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", which put him in charge of all the trains that would carry Jews to the death camps in the territory of occupied Poland. In 1944, he was sent to Hungary after Germany had occupied that country prior to a Soviet invasion. Eichmann at first made an offer through Joel Brand, who was to act as an intermediary, to trade captive European Jews to the Western Allies for trucks and other goods. When there was no positive response to this offer, Eichmann started deporting Jews, sending 430,000 Hungarians to their deaths in the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Josef Mengele (see Mengele
) infamous for performing human experiments on camp inmates in Auschwitz, including children, for which Mengele was called the "Angel of Death"
By 1945, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler (see Himmler
) had ordered Jewish extermination to be halted and evidence of the Final Solution to be destroyed. Eichmann was appalled by Himmler's turnabout, and continued his work in Hungary against official orders. Eichmann was also working to avoid being called up in the last-ditch German military effort, since a year before he had been commissioned as a Reserve Untersturmführer in the Waffen-SS and was now being ordered to active combat duty. In 1945, Eichmann fled Hungary as the Soviets entered. He returned to Austria, where he met up with his old friend Ernst Kaltenbrunner (see Kaltenbrunner
). Kaltenbrunner, however, refused to associate with Eichmann since Eichmann's duties as an extermination administrator had left him a marked man by the Allies. At the end of World War II, Eichmann was captured by the U.S. Army, which was not aware of Eichmann's true identity as he presented himself as "Otto Eckmann." Early in 1946, he escaped from U.S. custody and hid in Altensalzkoth, an obscure hamlet on the Lüneburg Heath, for a few years. In 1948 he obtained a landing permit for Argentina on the boat Giovanna C, together with the Flyer Ace Hans Rudel (see Rudel
), with the help of the organisation "Odessa", Organization des Ehemaligen SS Angehörigen.
Organisation of former SS members". His wife Vera and sons moved to a "save" Argentina in 1952. They always were searching for Eichmann, one was the Jewish Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal (see Wiesenthal
) and at last (see Wiesenthal)
Eichmann living under the name Ricardo Klement in the suburbe San Fernando, Buenes Aires, was captured by a team of Mossad and Shin Bet agents in a suburb of Buenos Aires on 11-05-1960. The Mossad agents had arrived in Buenos Aires in April 1960 after Eichmann's identity was confirmed. After observing Eichmann extensively, a team of Mossad agents waited for him as he arrived home from his work as foreman at a Mercedes Benz factory. Two Mossad men wrestled him to the ground and he was brought to the car. Eichmann told his captor Peter Malkin, he died age 77, on 01-03-2005 in New York,
later that as soon as they told him to keep quiet, he knew he had been captured by Israelis. Eichmann was drugged to appear drunk and was dressed as a flight attendant. He was smuggled out of Argentina on board an El Al Bristol Britannia flight from Argentina to Dakar and then to Israel on 21-05-1960. He arrived heavily sedated, and like the agents, disguised in the uniform of the El Al crew. Eichmann's trial in Jerusalem before the Jerusalem District Court began on 11-04-1961. His defender was Dr. Robert Servatius
who earlier already defended Fritz Sauckel (see Sauckel
) in the Nuremburg process. He was indicted on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and membership in an outlawed organization. After 14 weeks of testimony with more than 1,500 documents, 100 prosecution witnesses, 90 of whom were Nazi concentration camp survivors and dozens of defense depositions delivered by diplomatic couriers from 16 different countries, the Eichmann trial ended on August 14. At that point, the judges began deliberations in seclusion.
obeserved Eichmann three hours in his cell, to avoid a suicide. This remains the only civil execution ever carried out in Israel, which has a general policy of not enforcing the death penalty. Eichmann allegedly refused a last meal, preferring instead a bottle of Carmel, a dry red Israeli wine, consuming about half the bottle. He also refused to don the traditional black hood for his execution. According to an official account, there were supposedly two people who would pull the lever simultaneously, so neither would know for sure by whose hand Eichmann died. But Nagar says he knows nothing about that. "I didn't see anyone else there. It was just me and Eichmann. I was standing a few feet from him, and looked him straight in the eye. He refused to have his face covered, and he was still wearing those trademark checkered slippers. Then I pulled the lever and he fell, dangling by the rope."
Shortly after the execution, Eichmann's body was cremated in a specially designed furnace, and a stretcher on tracks was used to place the body into it.
The next morning, June 1, his ashes were scattered at sea over the Mediterranean from Jaffa Port, beyond the territorial waters of Israel by an Israeli Navy patrol boat. This was to ensure that there could be no future memorial and that no country would serve as his final resting place.